Как работают филеры и какие они бывают

Филеры — это общее название большой группы препаратов. Их объединяет то, что все они являются наполнителями: могут заполнить морщины, изменить контур лица, сделать губы больше. С английского filler так и переводится — наполнитель. Давайте разберемся, как они работают, какими бывают, а также разберем плюсы и минусы филеров в косметологии.

Как работают филеры?

Для введения препарата используют тонкие иглы, которые проникают в средние слои кожи, практически не травмируя поверхность кожи. Собственно, это всё. Филер — гелеобразное вещество, которое вводится в кожу и наполняет её в тех местах, где это необходимо.

Обычно гель держится в коже до года-двух и рассасывается. После этого (при желании) процедуру можно повторить. Если вам не понравится результат, вы можете использовать «антидот», который способствует рассасыванию препарата. Но — внимание — не для всех видов филеров есть такие противоядия. Поэтому так важно уделить время выбору филера.

Разновидности филеров

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Все используемые в косметологии филеры делятся на три больших группы: синтетические, биосинтетические и биодеградируемые (их еще называют натуральные).

Синтетические филеры не рассасываются, избавиться от них можно только хирургическим путем. Кроме этого, они часто вызывают побочные реакции и имеют свойство «мигрировать». Из-за этого в некоторых странах Европы и в США они запрещены, но в России их можно встретить, и они даже пользуются некоторой популярность из-за своей дешевизны. От таких филеров лучше воздерживаться. Это:

— Силиконы (Bioplastique, Silikon 1000, SilSkin, AdatoSil 5000);

— Акриловые гели (Derma lives, Derma deep);

— Полиакриламидные гели (Outline, Evolution, Aquamid, Amazingel);

— Фосфаттрикальциевые гели (Atlean);

— Алкиламиды (Bio-alcamid, Zirconium beads);

— Синтетическая поли-L-молочная кислота (New-Fill-Sculptra).

Последний материал по свойствам выбивается из этого ряда, потому что хоть и является синтетическим, но считается биологически совместимым и гораздо лучше принимается организмом, чем другие синтетические препараты. Основным назначением является стимуляция выработки коллагена. Филеры на основе полимолочной кислоты предназначены обычно для заполнения морщин и носогубных складок и полностью рассасываются примерно за 2 года.

Биосинтетические филеры состоят из искусственных и биологических составляющих (например, коллагена). Они отличаются длительным действием (от двух лет) и распадаются лишь частично.

К биосинтетическим носятся филеры Artecoll, Artefill, Arteplast, Evolution, DermaLife, DermaDeep;, Matridex, Matridur, Matrigel, Profill.

Довольно популярны биосинтетические филеры на основе кальция гидроксилапатита, химического соединение, входящее в состав тканей костей и зубов. Самый распространённый представитель — Radiesse (Bioform) — интрадермальный наполнитель, состоящий из синтетического Са-гидроксилапатита.

В ряде классификаций филеры на основе кальция гидроксилапатита относятся е биодеградируемым, так как они легко принимаются организмом и рассасываются. Однако гидроксиапатит кальция является твёрдым компонентом, а гелевой структуры добиваются при добавлении небольшого количества карбокси-метил-целлюлозы натрия (USP), то есть препарат также можно отнести к биосинтетическим.

Биодеградируемые филеры получают из биоматериалов животного или человеческого происхождения. Они максимально биосовместимы, безопасны, не мигрируют и минимизируют возможность осложнений. Так как на сегодня это максимально рекомендуемая группа филеров, давайте уделим побольше внимания подвидам этой группы филеров.

Филеры на основе гиалуроновой кислоты.

Гиалуроновая кислота — основной компонент соединительной ткани. Филлеры на её основе не только наполняют нужные участок, но и стимулируют синтез коллагена.

Эти филлеры получают из животных белков, чаще всего — петушиных гребешков. Внимание! Если гиаулуроновая кислота получена из петушиных гребешков, её нельзя использовать людям с аллергией на яйца и мясо кур.

Популярные филеры на основе гиалуроновой кислоты: Hylaform, Hylaform Plus, Hilaform fine line, Mac Dermol, Touchline.

Не так давно появлялась синтетическая гиалуроновая кислота, филеры на основе которой также относятся к биодеградируемым, так как относить и в группу синтетических сложно из-за свойств: она является прекрасной альтернативой гиалуроновой кислоте животного происхождения, чисты от инородных примесей, не аллергичны, а гель полностью распадается на естественные продукты метаболизма человека — воду и углекислый газ.

Этот тип препаратов отлично себя зарекомендовал, поэтому на рынке таких филеров довольно много. Вот лишь самые популярные: Teosyal, Radiesse, Juvederm, Pluryal, Surgiderm, Restylane, Stylage.

Филеры на основе коллагена.

Коллаген — строительный белок соединительной ткани. Коллагеновый субстрат получают из биоматериалов животных, обычно быков или свиней, реже — из биоматериала человека.

Препарат со свиным коллагеном: Evolence.

С бычьим коллагеном: Zyderm I и II, Zyplast.

Нужно помнить, что бычий и свиной коллаген — это чуждый белок, 3-5% людей имеют к ним антитела. Перед инъекциями таких филеров обязательно проводятся пробы на переносимость.

Препараты с человеческим коллагеном: Cosmoderm, Cosmoplast, Fascian, Cymectra, Synthetic human collagen.

Auto-collagene Isolagen изготавливается из собственных тканей пациента и гарантирует отсутствие непереносимости.

Аутологичные филеры.

Изготавливаются из собственных тканей пациента. Кроме использования собственного коллагена, есть и другие способы использования собственных материалов человека. Самая распространенная процедура — липофилинг: жировые клетки пациента извлекают с помощью липосакции и вводят в другие места. Не вызывает аллергии.

Плюсы филеров

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Основные достоинства филеров:

  1. Это безоперационный метод.
  2. Результаты видны после первой процедуры.
  3. Процедуру можно проводить в любое время года.
  4. Биодеградируемые филеры на основе коллагена и гиалуроновой кислоты дополнительно улучшают состояние кожи.

Минусы филеров

При отсутствии противопоказаний вы можете не почувствовать никаких минусов. Однако это всё-таки инъекция чужеродного вещества, поэтому могут возникнуть осложнения:

Краткосрочные (проходят быстро):

— Синяки;

— Болезненные ощущения в местах инъекции;

— Возникновения зуда и припухлости;

— Асимметрия;

— Омертвение тканей;

— Появление гнойно-воспалительных процессов в местах инъекции.

Долгосрочные (могут продолжаться в течение месяцев):

— Образование просматриваемых скоплений филлера;

— Возникновение плотных узлов под кожей;

— Аллергия;

— Герпес;

— Одутловатость лица;

— Эмболия сосудов, нарушение работы кровоснабжения тканей.

Откажитесь от процедуры в случае противопоказаний:

— Иммунные патологии, раковые заболевания, сахарный диабет, гемофилия;

— Склонность к появлению келоидных рубцов;

— Присутствие в области, куда планируется вводиться филер, силикона;

— Аллергия (у вас были случаи, когда филер отторгался);

— Беременность и кормление;

— Менструация;

— Недавние пилинги, лазерная шлифовка и т. д.;

— Патологии, связанные с бактериями, вирусами, грибками;

— Обострение хронической болезни.

 

Если вы решились на введение филеров, во время восстановительного периода:

Три дня не трогайте лицо и не пользуйтесь косметическими средствами (в том числе не спите лицом в подушку).

Попросите косметолога сделать массаж зоны корректировки для лучшего распределения геля под кожей.

Не принимайте аспирин 4 дня после инъекции, чтобы уменьшить риск возникновения гематом.

Неделю не ходите в сауну и солярий, избегайте тяжелых физических нагрузок и водных видов спорта.

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