Что такое гиалуроновая кислота и зачем она нужна

Про гиалуроновую кислоту (она же — гиалуронка) сегодня не слышали разве что лесорубы, да и в этом нет уверенности. Её вкалывают, едят, мажут и активно обсуждают. Давайте разберемся, что такое гиалуроновая кислота и чем она хороша.

Как было

В 1934 году биохимик Карл Мейер опубликовал статью об обнаруженном им в стекловидном теле глаз коров полисахариде с высокой молекулярной массой, и с тех пор это вещество активно и многократно исследовалось. Добывали его поначалу из гребней петухов, позже было открыто несколько методов синтеза гиалуроновой кислоты с помощью бактерий.

В 2009 году журнал International Journal of Toxicology опубликовал статью, объединяющую результаты многочисленных исследований и признавшую гиалуроновую кислоту безопасной для использования. И понеслось!

Что это?

Гиалуроновая кислота — это не кислота в полном смысле этого слова, она не растворяет другие вещества и не отшелушивает. Это естественный компонент, который присутствует во множестве тканей людей и животных, большой её объем есть в соединительной ткани суставов. Гиалуроновая кислота — это по большому счету сахар, её структура и большая молекулярная масса молекулы позволяют гиалуронке удерживать количество воды, во много раз превышающее её собственный объем.

Для чего используется?

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Гиалуроновая кислота используется в медицине для лечения артрита, при лечении катаракты и замене роговицы. Но широкой публике она известна как косметическое и косметологическое средство.

Инъекции гиалуроновой кислоты разнообразны, одна из самых популярных процедур — биоревитализация. При введении в эпидермис  гиалуроновая кислота стимулирует регенерацию и увлажнение кожи.

Гиалуроновая кислота — родственный коже компонент, и поэтому она считается безопасной по сравнению с другими видами филлеров, например, ботоксом. Кроме того, для нее существует антидот — гиалуронидаза, а значит, любой эффект от инъекции гиалуронки полностью обратим.

Наружное применение гиалуроновой кислоты не менее распространено: количество гиалуроновых лосьонов, кремов и сывороток от разных производителей постоянно растет. Гиалуроновая кислота содержит большое количество кислорода и гидроксильных групп, и это позволяет ей формировать сильные водородные связи с водой. Или, говоря, проще: это уникальное средство для увлажнения, равному которых сейчас в косметике, пожалуй, не найти.

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Что интересно: многие увлажняющие кремы и сыворотки часто подвергаются обвинениям в том, что они не проникают глубоко в кожу, и увлажняют разве что её верхний слой. В 1999 году сотрудники отделения биохимии и молекулярной биологии австралийского Университета Монаша исследовали способности проникновения гиалуроновой кислоты в кожу обнаружили, что молекулы гиалуроновой кислоты достигают дермы, подкожной жировой клетчатки. Более того: её следы были обнаружены в крови.

Обратите внимание! На данный момент доказана эффективность увлажнения кожи с помощью средств с гиалуроновой кислотой, но нет никаких доказательств того, что крем с гиалуронкой омолодит вас. А вот как увлажняющему средству — да, им сейчас нет равных.

Безопасность

Безопасность гиалуроноваой кислоты доказана, но, как и практически любое вещество в мире, она может вызывать аллергию. В случае аллергической реакции её использование стоит прекратить другие средства. Способностью хорошо удерживать воду обладают глицерин, мочевина, AHA-кислоты и некоторые вещества. Хоть и делают они это не так хорошо.

Гиалуроновая кислота противопоказана беременным и кормящим грудью, а также страдающим аутоиммунными заболеваниями, нарушениями гомеостаза, инфекционными заболеваниями, болезнями крови (нарушение свертываемости) и некоторыми другими заболеваниями. Обязательно уточните у врача противопоказания.

 

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