Варикоз. Причины, лечение и профилактика

Варикозное расширение вен — очень распространенная проблема. Принято считать, что варикоз бывает только у женщин, но это не так: по разным данным от него страдают 25-35% женщин и 10-20% мужчин. Просто именно на женщин действуют такие факторы риска, как беременность и ношение обуви на каблуках. А ещё именно женщин часто беспокоит эстетическая сторона проблемы — вздутые вены смотрятся некрасиво.

Но красота — лишь часть того, что должно вас заботить. Из-за нарушения кровотока в варикозных венах могут образоваться тромбы, в этом случае начнётся тромбофлебит. Хуже всего, если тромбы появятся на глубоких венах: последствия тромбоза или тромбоэмболии в этом случае могут быть очень опасными. Трофические язвы — последняя стадия таких изменений, они долго заживают и даже могут угрожать жизни.

Но подождите паниковать: варикозное расширение вену успешно лечится, главное — вовремя обратить внимание на вздувшиеся вены и обратиться к врачу. Бежать нужно именно к врачу, а не в ближайшую аптеку за мазью, увиденной в рекламе. Но к этому ещё вернёмся чуть позже, начнём с причин варикоза.

Почему возникает варикозное расширение вен?

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Вопреки законам тяготения, кровь в венах движется снизу-вверх, и толкать её в направлении к сердцу помогают венозные клапаны. Венозным клапанам становится очень тяжело справляться с этой работой при таких условиях, как сидячий образ жизни, беременность, регулярное ношение обуви на высоких каблуках, чрезмерные спортивные нагрузки (профессиональный спорт). Кровь застаивается в нижней половине туловища, сосуды несут сильную нагрузку, и венозные клапаны начинают работать все хуже.

Когда венозные клапаны перестают хорошо справляться со своей функцией, кровь застаивается, меньше насыщается кислородом, вены расширяются и вздуваются. Среди факторов влияния необходимо упомянуть и наследственную предрасположенность. Но помнить, что предрасположенность — не приговор, а просто повышенная вероятность.

Как лечат варикоз?

Сегодня флебологи часто выбирают не один метод, а комбинацию дополняющих друг друга методов, например, компрессионный трикотаж и таблетки плюс хирургическое вмешательство. Хирургическое вмешательство — это лазерная и радиотерапия, механическое удаление вен. Это операции, при которых поврежденная вена просто удаляется. На ранних этапах могут назначить склеротерапию — в этом случае с помощью уколов в варикозную вену шприцом вводится специальный препарат, «склеивающий» стенки сосуда.

Если прямо сейчас вы не готовы к лечению (но откладывать его можно в том случае, если повреждения не сильные), используйте компрессионный трикотаж. По сути это единственное средство, которое замедляет развитие болезни без медицинского вмешательства. Гольфы и чулки компенсируют отсутствие тонуса стенок сосудов.

Мази полезны только при массаже, а не каждый сможет грамотно его сделать самостоятельно. Таблетки же и вовсе способны только снять неприятные ощущения, а не оказать лечебное воздействие.

Как избежать варикоза?

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Cамая эффективная профилактика — движение. Даже час прогулок в день существенно снижает риск варикозного расширения вен. А вот перенапряжение окажет обратный эффект.

Помогает укрепить сосуды контрастный душ. Только не переусердствуйте: сильного холода или ожогов не должно.

Периодически стоит располагать ноги выше уровня таза — например, сидеть, положив ноги на стол. В гостях или на работе не рекомендуем ))

Если у вас сильная наследственная предрасположенность, не поленитесь сходить к врачу за советом, даже если проблемы ещё нет. Возможно, стоит пропить препараты для укрепления стенок сосудов. Но только по назначению врача!

58 Replies to “Варикоз. Причины, лечение и профилактика”

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  58. Врачи считают, что основная причина развития варикоза наследственная. Если у ваших родителей или бабушек-дедушек есть варикозное расширение вен, то эта неприятность могла передаться и вам. Причем неважно, на ногах или в других местах было расширение вен у ваших предков: болезнь может локализоваться в паху, в области анального отверстия (да-да, это геморрой) если есть ген, обеспечивающий слабую венозную стенку, то он может рано или поздно проявить себя.