Что такое дискретное голодание и полезно ли оно?

Калифорния помешалась на «intermittent fasting». Сейчас этот термин обычно переводят на русский как фастинг (хотя можно ли употреблять здесь слово «переводят»?). В России этот метод давно известен как дискретное голодание.

Дискретное (прерывистое) голодание означает периодический отказ от пищи на 12-16 часов. Изначально был распространен отказ от пищи с полуночи до следующей полуночи. Сейчас становится популярным более здоровый и настроенный на наши биоритмы метод — отказ от еды с обеда одного дня до завтрака другого. То есть вы просто отказываетесь от ужина.

Люди делают это, чтобы похудеть, улучшить свое здоровье и при этом не сильно заморачиваться о тонкостях здорового образа жизни. Этакий биохак на каждый день. Точнее, на два дня в неделю.

Метод настолько не новый, что напоминает традиционный православный пост среды и пятницы. А если копнуть еще глубже, то можно понять, что периодическое голодание для нас более полезно, чем закидывание в себя еды 3-4 раза в день с утра до вечера.

Что происходит с клетками и гормонами во время дискретного голодания?

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Исследования показывают, что в результате декретного голодания:

Уровень гормона роста увеличивается в 5 раз. Это преимущество для сжигания жира и роста мышц (1, 2, 3, 4).

Уровень инсулина резко снижается, что благотворно действует на уровень сахара в крови и также помогает сжигать жир (5).

Клетки начинают процессы клеточного «ремонта», в том числе перерабатывают и удаляют старые и дисфункциональные белки, которые накапливаются внутри клеток (6, 7).

Похудеть с помощью дискретного голодания

Всё это супер, но будем честны друг с другом: многие голодают только для похудения, не задумываясь о гормонах роста и инсулине. Поэтому давайте посмотрим, что происходит с весом во время фастинга:

Вы употребляете меньше калорий, что однозначно понижает вес.

Помимо снижения уровня инсулина и повышенного уровня гормонов, способствующих сжиганию жира, происходит высвобождения норэпинефрина (норадреналина), который способен увеличивать метаболизм (8,9).

Ещё один интересный факт: существует также исследование, показывающее, что дискретное голодание вызывает меньше мышечной потери, чем более стандартный метод непрерывного ограничения калорий (10).

Но не забывайте, что главная причина потери веса — это всё-таки дефицит калорий. Если до и после голодания вы начнёте объедаться, заталкивая в себя огромное количество еды, положительного эффекта не будет.

Внимание!

Люди, увлеченные дискретным голоданием, начинают увеличивать срок голодания до двух дней, а иногда и больше. Не забывайте, что голодать больше суток не стоит без консультации с врачом.

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