Сладкий я. Как сахар влияет на нас?

Сахар нужен для мозга — уверяют одни. Сахар отравляет нас — это уже другие. Так есть или не есть? Или есть, но чуть-чуть? И зачем? И можно ли заменить? Давайте разбираться.

Почему мы любим сладкое?

sugar1

 

У человечества не всегда были под боком магазины с конфетами и пирожными (а у большой части человечества нет и сегодня). Наши организмы тысячелетиями приобретали привычку радоваться высококалорийной пище, ведь калории так необходимы для жизни!

Сегодня многие употребляют гораздо больше еды, чем необходимо. Но организм всё равно кричит «Ура!» и выбрасывает в кровь порцию эндорфинов, когда к нему попадает сладенький кусочек.

Когда-то сладкое считалось полезным, а сегодня — чуть ли не наркотиком. Существуют даже клиники, в которых лечат от сахарной зависимости! Издаются книги с рецептами без сахара. А миллионы людей всё равно улучшают себе настроение шоколадкой или съедают пирожное, когда чувствуют упадок работоспособности. И даже говорят, без сахара начинают плохо соображать.

Правда ли, что без сахара мы глупеем?

Если коротко — нет. Нашему мозгу нужна глюкоза, а не сахар. А источником глюкозы могут быть любые углеводы. Просто сахар усваивается моментально, а значит, глюкоза поступает в мозг очень быстро. Мы едим сладкое и чествуем этот прилив сразу. Поэтому склонны верить, что сахар полезен для мозга.

Однако этот прилив кратковременный, наш мозг быстро перерабатывает полученную глюкозу и снова начинает лениться, требуя новую дозу сахара.

В то время как плюсом (ложным) сахара обычно считают пользу для мозга, то абсолютным минусом — риск сахарного диабета. Но что такое сахар в крови и почему он так опасен?

Сахар в крови: как сладкое влияет на состав крови?

У каждого продукта есть гликемический индекс — показатель того, насколько быстро он усваивается и как сильно при этом поднимается уровень сахара в крови. Высокий ГИ у быстрых углеводов, в том числе у сахара. Тут нужно оговориться, что на сахар в крови повышает не только сладкое: например, быстро повышают уровень глюкозы в крови пиво или картофель.

Однако сейчас мы говорим о сахаре. Итак, после того, как он попадает в организм, в крови редко возрастает уровень глюкозы, вслед за которым происходит резкий выброс инсулина — гормона поджелудочной железы, который доставляет глюкозу в клетки мышц, жировой ткани и печени. Уровень глюкозы в крови после этого быстро падает, и уже меньше чем через час снова хочется есть.

Когда человек снова и снова в течение дня утоляет желание съесть ещё сладкого, сахар в крови весь день скачет. И если эти скачки возникают всё чаще и чаще, повышенный уровень сахара в крови становится хроническим, то есть развивается сахарный диабет, который, в свою очередь приводит к нарушениям в работе сердца и сосудов, почек и т.д.

И тут возникает следующий вопрос.

На что можно заменить сахар?

sugar2

 

Отказываясь от обычного сахара, некоторые заменяют его на кленовый, финиковый сиропы или сироп топинамбура. Подобные заменители полезнее, чем обычный рафинированный сахар, но они также обладают высоким гликемическим индексом.

При этом существуют как природные, так и синтетические заменители сахара, которые не превращаются в глюкозу и не вызывают повышения уровня инсулина.

К натуральным относится стевия, получаемая из одноимённого растения в Южной Америке. Она слаще сахара и почти не содержит калорий. Но внимание! Стевию нежелательно сочетать с некоторыми лекарствами, поэтому проконсультируйтесь с врачом, если хотите её употреблять.

Ещё одни известные натуральные заменители сахара — ксилит и сорбит. У них также низкий ГИ и мало калорий. Правда, есть данные о возможных побочных эффектах при передозировке — тошноте и диарее.

Синтетических сахарозаменителей существует довольно много. Самыми известными можно назвать аспартам и сукралозу. Их недостатком — то, что они мало исследованы. А уже проведенные исследования показывают не слишком радужные результаты. Например, была продемонстрирована канцерогенность аспартама для крыс, принимающих его на всю жизнь.

В общем, с сахарозаменителями не все так просто. А можно ли решить проблему сахарохависимости более глобально?

Как употреблять меньше сахара?

  1. Поддерживать ровный уровень сахара в крови. Для этого необходимо есть медленные углеводы (например, гречку или овсянку) и питаться часто, но небольшими порциями.
  2. Следить не только за едой. Много сахара может быть в соусах и напитках, в том числе алкогольных.
  3. Найти новые способы повышения настроения. Возможно, вам нужна любимая песня, а не тортик.
  4. Высыпайтесь. Невыспавшийся организм отчаянно требует энергии, а сахар — самый быстрый способ её получить.
  5. Экспериментируйте с едой. Разнообразие вкусов и запахов поможет меньше желать постоянного возвращения к сладкому.

 

 

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